(Vs. 10) The first reference is to the FATHER: "For it became Him." Salvation was an act worthy of the Father and characteristic of His nature of love (for God is love). He is the FIRST CAUSE of all things in creation and grace, and they are all for His glory and good pleasure.
The second reference is to US: "In bringing many sons unto glory." These sons are predestinated to the adoption of children, redeemed by Christ, called by His Spirit, and heirs of heavenly glory. There are MANY of them out of every kindred and nation (Rom. 8:28-31; Rev. 5:9).
The third person mentioned is CHRIST: "The captain of their salvation." He is called the captain of our salvation because He is the AUTHOR of it; He is our KING AND LORD; He is our GUIDE AND LEADER. BY the Father's purpose and love (John 3:16) and BECAUSE of the Father's righteousness and justice, the Saviour must suffer perfectly all that the law and justice of God required of us (Rom. 3:19-26). The only way that Christ could redeem us in agreement with the attributes of God was to suffer, and that in a perfect manner (Luke 24:26; Luke 24:46).
(Vs. 11) Christ, Who sanctifies, and those He sanctifies have one Father and stand in relationship as brethren. Christ is the first-born of many brethren. This relationship Christ acknowledges (Matt. 12:46-50: John 20:17). In Christ and with Christ we have one Father, we are one family, we are one body, and we are one covenant. Though He is God over all, He is not ashamed to own us as brethren.
(Vs. 12-13) These words are quoted from Psalm 22:22 (without doubt a Psalm of Christ) as proof of what Paul said in Verse 11. The other quotation is from Isaiah 8:17-18. Christ receives His children as a GIFT from the Father (John 17:2). He receives them as a PURCHASE paid for by His blood (I Cor. 6:20). He receives them from the Holy Spirit as those who are CALLED; they COME TO HIM in faith!
(Vs. 14) Since those whom He redeems are of human nature, Christ also became a man and assumed a human nature like theirs. He took flesh and blood, subject to temptation, infirmities, and death; but Christ took His nature of a virgin and was WITHOUT SIN. We were under sentence of death because of sin. In order to take this Judgment and sentence upon Himself to redeem us, Christ had to become a man (I Cor. 15:21), a man who could die under the wrath and Judgment of sin. God cannot die, but God in the flesh can experience death. Satan cannot kill and destroy except by permission, but he is said to have the power of death because he INTRODUCED SIN WHICH BROUGHT DEATH. Sin is the sting of death, and sin is the force and power of Satan's kingdom. Christ destroys this power and force over all believers (John 11:25-26).
(Vs. 15) This is applicable to all believers; for without hope in Christ, death is certainly a fearful experience. How can any person who has no hope of pardon, forgiveness, and eternal life look upon death without fear? But this Scripture is especially spoken concerning the Jews under the Law of Moses, which was a bondage and constantly spoke of death because they were daily transgressing those ceremonies and laws. Without Christ, the Law of God offers no hope, only death (Rom. 8:15).
(Vs. 16) There was no salvation designed for the fallen angels (Jude 6). Christ took human nature as derived from Abraham, for the Messiah was to spring from Abraham and is promised as THAT SEED of his in whom all nations would be blessed (Gen. 22:18; Gal. 3:16). This shows, too, God's sovereignty and His distinguishing grace and mercy to men.
(Vs. 17) It was necessary for Christ to become man, for unless He was a man:
1. He could not be a High Priest to offer sacrifice for sin and make intercession, for the High Priest was taken from among men (Heb. 5:1).
2. He would have no sacrifice to offer, for He had to shed His blood (Heb. 9:11-12).
3. He could not be a faithful High Priest or Mediator with a perfect righteousness to plead (Rom. 5:19).
(Vs. 18) He was tempted in all things He suffered, He hungered, He thirsted, He was despised, He was a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. Therefore, He is able to sympathize and aid us in our infirmities.